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By Halford J. Mackinder

1919 observed the book of 2 significant polemical works: The financial outcomes of the Peace by way of John Maynard Keynes and Democratic beliefs and Reality by means of Halford J. Mackinder. the previous is legendary, the latter less so - however it was once its personal manner a prophetic e-book.
Mackinder's message, his caution - addressed to the peacemakers at Versailles - used to be memorably summarized hence: 'Who ideas East Europe instructions the Heartland: / Who ideas the Heartland instructions the World-Island: / Who principles the World-Island instructions the World.'
Mackinder contended that energy used to be moving from the sea-borne empires to international locations that encompassed the good land plenty: japanese Europe he unique as 'the geographical pivot of history.' His thesis made a outstanding impact on German geopolitician Karl Haushofer who used to be keenly learn, in flip, by way of Hitler. yet Democratic beliefs and Reality has continued as a severe learn of imperial targets and geographical realities.

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